Aphis (Aphis) citricola in Schmidt S, Monje J C. Taxon list of Hymenoptera from Germany compiled in the context of the GBOL project. Staatliche. Species Aphis citricola Van Der Goot, contains: Subordinate Taxa, Rank, Verified Standards Met, Verified Min Standards Met, Unverified, Percent. An examination of the original material of Aphis citricola v.d. Goot, a species described in from Chile but later erroneously sunk and eventually widely.
Aphis spiraecola was first described by Patch in Meanwhile, Aphis citricola was described by van der Groot infrom aphids collected in Chile. Eastop and Blackman re-examined the original material from which A. They suggested that the widespread pest aphid on citrus and other trees and shrubs should therefore revert to the name used for it formerly: This is now the accepted name.
Eastop and Hille Ris Lambers listed synonyms but under the name citricola van der Groot. Description Top of page A. Its body colour is bright greenish-yellow or yellowish-green to apple-green. It has a brown head, mainly pale legs and antennae, but siphunculi and cauda that are dark-brown to black. Alatae have a dark-brown head and thorax, and a yellowish-green abdomen with dusky lateral patches on each segment Blackman and Eastop, Distribution Top of page A. Blackman and Eastop listed it as being present in North America at least since ; while introductions occurred to the Mediterranean region aroundAfrica inAustralia in and New Zealand in The species now has a worldwide distribution in temperate and tropical regions.
Distribution Table Top of page The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status.
Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Reproductive biology Where it is holocyclic and produces sexual morphs, the primary hosts are Spiraea or Citrus.
In Japan, both Spiraea and Citrus are recorded primary hosts Komazaki et al.
Hodjat and Eastop also recorded sexual forms on apple in Iran. However, it is anholocyclic and reproduces entirely apnis over most of its geographical range. Aphids feed on young buds, shoots and leaves of host plants Blackman and Eastop, In Japan, aphids overwintering on citrus and Spiraea represent two distinct biotypes of A.
Timing of the overwintered egg hatch differed between populations on xitricola and Spiraea; a difference which was apparently genetically determined.
Spring migrants of the citrus biotype increased rapidly on citrus and pear but only slowly on apple and Spiraea, while the Spiraea biotype increased rapidly on Spiraea and pear but slowly on apple and not at all on citrus Komazaki, The alate migrants from citrus play a major part in the spring infestation of citrus groves in Japan and other citrus growing regions.
In Henan Province, China, holocyclic populations occur on apple, with overwintering as eggs in bud axils. Around generations a year occur, with two population wphis during the year.
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The first population peak in the spring can result in severe damage to apple trees; while the second in autumn can affect the formation of buds and flowers, although overall damage to crop yields is less severe Zhang et al. In the Mediterranean region, the first small colonies on new citrus growth occur by early February.
In hot weather, nymphs can grow into adults within days, leading to rapid population growth. On average, one aphid deposits 30 nymphs. Up to 14 generations may be produced in one year. An increased proportion of winged forms are produced in response to both over-crowding and a deteriorating food supply.
The aphid cannot feed on citrus leaves that become hardened after the first growth ‘flush’. When the production of young leaves stops, alates began to form nearly all of the adult population. These alates migrate in search of fresh young hosts.
In the autumn, fruit formation enriches the sap in favour of the aphid and populations start to build up again. In winter, in temperate areas, few adults survive. However, in the tropics, where new shoot production is year-round, population levels can remain relatively high Heinze, Chemical ecology Sexual females oviparae in holocyclic populations of A. For wild oviparae, collected from an apple orchard and a Spiraea arboretum in Korea, the ratio between the two components was around 2: Oviparae showed a circadian rhythm in release of sex pheromone Hong et al.
Lacewing predators may be attracted to the aphid sex pheromone Boo and Park, Environmental requirements In laboratory experiments, with A. It was concluded that the optimal range of temperature for A. Komazaki studied the relationship between temperature and incubation period on diapause in the eggs of two races of A. Associations Colonies of A. Dartigues described how the ant species Tapinoma simrothi had a positive influence on the growth and survival of A.
Shindo described five species of ant tending A. It was assumed that this ant interfered with the activity of aphid predators.
The ant Crematogaster depressa tended the aphid on cocoa in Cameroon Dejean et al. On severely affected fruit trees, the entire yield is at risk. Direct feeding is particularly damaging to young trees in spring, when aphids vitricola the new buds and shoots causing leaf curl and shoot distortion.
Aphis – Wikipedia
Sooty moulds, which thrive on aphid honeydew, contribute to the cosmetic damage of fruit, reducing its marketable value. It zphis of particular economic significance in young citrus orchards and on soft-skinned citrus varieties Miller, ; Barbagallo, The aphid transmits a range of viruses, including Citrus tristeza virus CTVCitrus psorosis virusCucumber mosaic virusPapaya ringspot virusPlum pox virusPotato virus Yviburnum strain of Alfalfa mosaic virusWatermelon mosaic virus and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Blackman and Eastop, Symptoms of citrus tristeza on citrus include leaf cupping, vein-clearing and stem-pitting.
In addition to being a pest of fruit orchards, A. Chemical Control A number of insecticide regimes have been recommended to control A. For example, Cho et al.
The identity of Aphis citricola van der Goot.
Pirimicarb has also been recommended, particularly in the context of integrated control. Stem bandages soaked with insecticide have been used in citrus orchards. Drenching of nursery plants with dimefox has also been recommended Heinze, Imidocloprid is a favoured insecticide for A. Biological Control Lysiphlebus testaceipes was imported from Cuba to mediterranean France for the biological control of A.
Biological control of A. However, this braconid parasite cannot complete its development in A. Parasitized aphids die or stop producing offspring, but no further parasites are produced from mummies.
This may be true for a number of generalist parasites aphsi ovipositing in this aphid, because of its relatively small size. Trioxys angelicae can complete its development in A. The parasitoid Aphelinus spiraecolae, which has a preference for A. Kuznetsov reported that coccinellids Harmonia spp. Qin described the mass rearing of insects, including the anthocorid Orius minutus, for release against A.
IPM Programmes Harmonia axyridis is the major natural enemy controlling aphid numbers in integrated pest management programmes in citrus in the Korean Republic, and Cho et al. An account of syrphid Diptera: Note on some aphids affecting economically important plants in Sikkim. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 51 9: Aphids in apple orchards in Central-South Bulgaria. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 47 1: The seasonal abundance of Aphis citricola V. Goot on certain fruit trees.
Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d’Egypte, No. Contributo alla conoscenza degli afidi degli agrumi. Contribution to knowledge of the aphids Aphididae of the State of Ceara, Brazil. Basu M; Patro B, New records of host plants and natural enemies of Aphis citricola van der Goot Aphididae: Homoptera from Orissa, India. Journal of Entomological Research, 31 2: Citrkcola di alcuni insetticidi contro gli afidi degli agrumi.
Aphis citricola van der Goot, 1912, replaces Aphis spiraecola Patch, 1914 (Homoptera, Aphididae).
Annali dell’Istituto Sperimentale per l’Agrumicoltura, Aphids on the world’s crops: Aphids as crop pests [ed. Insect semiochemical research in Korea: Applied Entomology and Zoology, 40 1: Conservation biological control of spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola Hemiptera: Aphididae on apple by providing natural alternative food resources.
Coccinellidae Coleoptera in apple orchards of eastern West Virginia and the impact of invasion by Harmonia axyridis. Entomological News, 2: Epidemiology of Plum pox virus in Japanese plums in Spain.
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