Home HISTORY THE NGONI MIGRATION (O LEVEL) EFFECTS OF NGONI They caused wide spread loss of lives leading to depopulation in some areas. The Ngoni migration was primarily caused by Shaka’s expansionist wars. He had embarked on an a vigorous policy of expanding his empire at the expense of. Explain the causes of the Ngoni migration. Reasons for the Ngoni migration. The Ngoni migrated due to the tyrannical and dictatorial rule of.
Tuesday, June 30, Ngoni Cuses. The Growth of External Contacts and Pressures. This subtopic explores the Ngoni invasion and settlement into East Africa. They were part nfoni the Bantu Nguni speaking people of Southern Africa.
They moved to Tanzania from Natal and Swaziland between and due to the Mfecane time of trouble. They are direct descendants of the Zulu. They are currently settled in South West Tanzania around Songea town. The Ngoni invasion illustrates the influence of external forces on the lives of the indigenous people.
The Ngoni brought innovation and changes such as military cause, skill and weapons. A study of the Ngoni would enable students appreciate the current settlement patterns and way of the life of the people of Southern Tanzania. At the end of the topic students should be able to:. Describe who the Ngoni were and identify the area where they came from. Explain the reasons why they migrated. Describe the course of their movement and settlement. State why they were able to defeat the inhabitant of Southern Cahses.
Explain the effects of their migration on the people of East Africa. The teacher should have advance knowledge on the following.
EFFECTS OF NGONI INVASIONS IN E. AFRICA
General knowledge of the Bantu migration. Some knowledge of South African geography and history. Who the Ngoni were, where they came from. Causes and course of their movement. Effects of their movements and settlement on the people of East Africa. Map of Africa showing Ngoni migration and settlement. A History of East Africa. Shaka Zulu film emphasize the section showing ruthlessness of Shaka. Migrated from South Africa to Tanzania between They were originally Ndwandwe people under Zwides leadership.
In origin, the Ngoni, were close relatives of the Zulu. They were full- time warriors and cattle plunderers hence disliked by other tribes, so they forced them away. They were pushed further north and eventually reached southern Tanzania. They were the last Bantu migrants to come to East Cauwes. They migrated into two largest groups of the Maseko and Tuta Ngoni.
It was due to fear of cajses absorbed into the empire of tyrant Shaka. They moved because of external pressure from the British and the Boers in the South who were moving northwards occupying their land.
It was due to over czuses, which was caused by the fertility of soils and reliability of rainfall between Drakensberg Mountains and the Indian Ocean.
Due to overpopulation there was land shortage hence land disputes, which led ,igration forcing them to migrate to other areas. Some owned large herds of cattle hence moved northwards looking for pasture and water for their animals. It was also due to epidemic diseases such as smallpox and sleeping sickness that affected them.
They could have moved because of famine and drought that led to lack of food and water. It was because of influence of men like Zwangendaba, Maputo and Zulugama who provided good leadership.
They migrated because of the spirit for Adventure. Need to see what was beyond them. The cwuses wanted to take over power in the areas they defeated, which was not acceptable to Shaka forcing some groups to migrate to other areas. They were fed up with the old traditional political system, which encouraged dictatorship and therefore wanted change, which could be achieved ngooni migration.
It could also have been due to overstocking of their animals. They migrated due to the increased knowledge of military tactics by the age regiments. The Ngoni migration took place in the 19 ngonni century, and was migrxtion last major movement of Bantu bgoni into East Africa.
There were 3 groups of the Ngoni in East Africa i. They then crossed River Zambezi and River Limpopo and moved northwards in search of new areas. Later inthey divided into two groups. They were attracted to this area here because of the many herds of cattle around.
Zwagendaba led the biggest Ngoni group that entered East Africa. Zwagendaba died here in aboutand his followers splint up into five sections. Three sections returned south to Zambia and Malawi, while the other two, i.
When Zwangendaba died aroundthe Ufipa ngoni causses and plit in to five groups. Two groups remained in East Africa,i. Three groups moved out of East Africa that is to say, one group moved to Malawi and the two moved back to Zambia. The Tutu Ngoni, the smallest group left Ufipa, moved northwards fighting and clashing with the Holoholo near Lake Tanganyika. They disrupted the trade route between Tabora and Ujiji.
In the s they invaded the Nyamwezi capturing many and incorporating them in their ranks. They finally settled at Kahama South of Lake Victoria. The two groups fought and theMaseko Ngoni were defeated and pushed out of Songea in s. Some of the Maseko moved back to Mozambique while others moved to Kilombero valley where they became known as the Mbunga.
Another splinter group moved to Newala, Masasi ccauses Tunduru. The Ngoni came in big numbers and were strong. The Ngoni had a large, well-trained and disciplined army. They had superior military tactics such as the cow horn method semi-circlewhich was unfamiliar in E. They met small and fragmented societies, which were unable to challenge their military organization. The Ngoni were successful due to their determination. They were determined to conquer and obtain places for settlement.
Disunity among the East African people living in isolated societies, made it easy for the Ngoni to defeat them. The Ngoni were fully united under their commanders. They had strong military leaders e. Csuses who were able to unite and command the Ngoni, Induna Maputo. Applied the scorched earth policy hence taking people unaware.
They burnt and destroyed crops.
MGVSS History (Teachers): Ngoni Migration
They used assimilation policyi. They also made themselves fearful to their enemies by wearing the skeletons of their victims. The Ngoni were a small group of people but were able to make their presence and authority fell by the local people because of their leadership, outstanding military efficiency and their capacity to migrattion conquered people into their armies.
Militarily the Ngoni were cases in large standing armies and age regiments People of the same age trained together, which brought unity and efficiency. They used the short- stabbing spears called assegai rather than the long- throwing spears which meant that the warriors could attack more effectively at a close range.
They used large cowhide shields, which could not be easily penetrated by spears. They used the cow horn method of surrounding an enemy and mgration from all sides giving the enemy little chance to escape. They often fought on their feet and in open areas for easy movement. They moved in large numbers which helped them to outnumber their enemies who were often caught unaware.
They used to absorb and assimilate all conquered people. Their movement led to the rise of ambitious men like Mirambo, Nyunguyamawe who copied their tactics and created their empires. Many small Ntemi chiefdoms came together united and formed larger political units under strong leaders to fight the Ngoni. There was formation of new societies tribes like the Mbunga. Many people copied their military organization and tactics to such an extent that the Ngoni lost their superiority.
The Hehe under Mkwawa were able to resist the Germans.
However there was spread of Ngoni customs and culture. It led to formation of a larger Ngoni society miration E. Africa as they absorbed many people. It led to formation of some societies by those who used Ngoni tactics e.
Reasons for the Ngoni migration.
It led to introduction of new weapons e. Assegai, cowhides and shields. From the Ngoni invasion, people learnt how to get organized from smaller disorganized societies, to well organized caauses political systems.
There were intermarriages between the Ngoni and Nyamwezi,whichsubsequentlyled to improved relationships between the invaders and indigenous peoples, and an increase in population.
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