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Extinction (psychology)

Rogelio Escobar and Carlos A. Rogelio Escobar, OfficeDepartment of Codnicionamiento. For other three rats the NCI was added between the end of the reinforcement component and the beginning of the extinction component.

Observing responses during the extinction component decreased only when the NCI was added at the end of the extinction component. Observing responses, conditioned reinforcement, lever pressing, stimuli pairing, rats.

An observing response is an operant that exposes an organism to discriminative stimuli without affecting the availability of primary reinforcement. In the first study of observing behavior, Wyckoffused an experimental chamber equipped with a response key, a food tray and a pedal located on the floor below the response key. He reinforced key pecking in one group of pigeons on a mixed fixed interval FI 30 s extinction EXT 30 s in which both components of the schedule alternated randomly.

Whenever the pigeons stepped off the pedal the response key light changed back to white. For another group of pigeons the color of the response keys did not correlate with the components of the mixed schedule.

Wyckoff recorded the accumulated durations of each of the stimuli and reported that the pigeons produced the discriminative stimuli during more of the session time when the color of the response key correlated with the components of the mixed schedule than when it did not. It can be concluded that the stimuli functioned as conditioned reinforcers for observing.

One advantage of observing procedures over other techniques for studying conditioned reinforcement is that the occurrence of observing behavior and stimuli presentation does not interfere with the schedule that controls the delivery of the primary reinforcer. As Perone and Kaminski stated, this results posed a challenge to a theory of conditioned reinforcement based on the pairing of the originally neutral stimulus and the primary reinforcer cf.

If observing responses during the extinction component are indeed related to the reinforcement component adding an interval between extinction and reinforcement component should result in a decrease in observing responses during the extinction component.

CONDICIONAMIENTO OPERANTE. by Lisbet Fernández Estela on Prezi

The rats had previous experience with a procedure of observing responses involving multiple and mixed RI EXT schedules of reinforcement but were never exposed to periods in which pressing the observing lever had no programmed consequences. The rats were housed within individual home cages with free access to water. Three experimental chambers Med Associates Inc.

A minimum force of 0.

The chambers were also equipped with a house light located on the rear panel, a sonalert Mallory SC that produced a Hz 70 dB tone, and one bulb with a plastic cover that produced a diffuse light above each lever. A pellet dispenser Med Associates Inc. The experiment was controlled and data were recorded from an adjacent room, using an IBM compatible computer through an interface Med Associates Inc.


These component durations were selected to guarantee a high and stable rate of observing responses during the EXT component. Each component in a pair of reinforcement and EXT components was presented randomly; thus, no more than two components of the same type could occur in succession in consecutive pairs. The RI schedule reinforced with food the first lever press after a variable interval of time mean of 20 s had elapsed.

The time interval was arranged by setting the probability of reinforcement assignment at 0. If the component ended before the termination of a stimulus, the remainder of the stimulus was cancelled. Presses on the observing lever during the stimuli had no programmed consequences. Each session consisted of 30 pairs of reinforcement and EXT components and this condition was in effect for 30 sessions. The particular values of the schedules chosen in the present experiment were based on our previous experiments, in which we found that these values maintained a sufficient and relatively stable rate of observing responses.

The NCI was unsignaled, and consisted of the absence of consequences for pressing the levers. Throughout the NCI the houselight and the white noise remained on.

For the other three rats, the NCI was added between the reinforcement and the EXT component whenever the components occurred in this order. Throughout the experiment sessions were conducted daily, seven days a week always at the same hour. The two columns at the left show the data for the three rats during the baseline and during the condition with the NCI added at the end of the EXT component.

The observing rates were correted by excluding stimulus duration from the duration of each component of the mixed schedule of reinforcement. Adding the NCI, either at the end or at the beginning of the EXT component, did not have systematic effects on the relative rate of observing responses during the EXT and the reinforcement components. To facilitate the comparison of the observing responses during the EXT and the reinforcement components relative to the baseline, Figure 2 shows the rate of observing responses during each component as a percentage of the rate of observing responses during the baseline.

The presentation of the NCI at the beginning of the EXT component did not have systematic effects on observing response rate relative to the baseline. The NCI added at the beginning of the EXT component did not have systematic effects on the rate of observing during the reinforcement component relative to the baseline.

In contrast, the intervals remained generally unchanged between the baseline and the condition with the NCI at te beginning of the EXT component. The number of reinforcers per session did not vary systematically between groups during the baseline condition or when the NCI was added to the EXT component.


These results suggest that observing responses occurring during the EXT component are not independent from the experimental events occurring during the condicuonamiento component. These results are comparable with previous studies that demonstrated that the value of a stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer decreased as the temporal distance between the stimulus and the primary reinforcer increased Bersh, ; Jenkins, The present results are also congruent with an associative conception of conditioned reinforcement in terms of context e.

The present findings can be reconciled with a delay reduction explanation. However, further research is necessary to support such statement.

As a consequence it would be expected that the NCI between the EXT and the reinforcement component would have only slight or no effects on observing response rate. The results suggest that it is necessary to separate the component of eextincion mixed schedule of reinforcement in observing procedures. In observing procedures traditionally the reinforcement and the extinction components of the mixed schedule are presented one immediately after the other with no blackout between components Auge, ; Shahan, et condiccionamiento.

The results of the present experiment suggest that such practice may result in the fact that observing within the ExT component is controlled to some extend by the events occurring during the reinforcement component. A similar effect concerning the competition of stimulus control using multiple schedules of reinforcement was suggested by Pierce and Cheney and blackouts have been implemented to avoid such confounding effects e.

The first author wishes to express his debt to Richard L. Context, observing behavior, and conditioned reinforcement. Extinckon influence of two variables upon the establishment operate a secondary reinforcer for operant responses. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6, Maintained by negative informative stimuli only if correlated with improvement in response efficiency. Observing and conditioned reinforcement. Conditioned reinforcement as a function of condiciionamiento of stimulus.

Maintained by stimuli correlated with reinforcement but not extinction. The generality of selective observing. A temporal gradient of derived reinforcement. A review of positive conditioned reinforcement. Observing responses in pigeons. Secondary reinforcement and information as determinants of observing behavior in monkeys Macaca mulatta.

Disruption of responding maintained by conditioned reinforcement: A replication of Lieberman’s procedure. Behavior analysis and learning 3rd ed. Reinforcement of human observing behavior by a stimulus correlated with condicionamiehto or increased effort. Conditioned reinforcement of human observing behavior by descriptive and arbitrary verbal stimuli. Effects of rate and magnitude of primary reinforcement.

Matching and conditioned reinforcement rate. Selective observing when the experimenter controls the duration of observing bouts.

The role of observing responses in discrimination learning. Apparatus Three experimental chambers Med Associates Inc. Zaragoza 91, casa 2, Colonia Miguel Hidalgo, C.