Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba: le mouridisme, Touba et Diourbel, Sénégal. Responsibility: Alain Juillet. Imprint: [Senegal?]: Editions Alain Juillet, . Physical. : Le mouridisme dans le web. 68K likes. L’actualité Autrement. Highlights info row image. people follow this. AboutSee All. Highlights info row image. Contact Le mouridisme on Messenger. Highlights info row image.
The Mouride brotherhood Wolof: The beliefs and practices of the Mourides constitute Mouridism. The Mouride make up around 40 percent of the total population in Senegal.
Their influence over everyday life can be seen throughout Senegal. Amadou Bamba was a Muslim mystic and ascetic marabouta spiritual leader who wrote tracts on meditationritualswork, and tafsir.
He is perhaps best known for his emphasis on work, and his disciples are known for their industriousness.
Although he did not support the French conquest of West Africahe did not wage outright war on them, as several prominent Tijani marabouts had done. Bamba’s followers call him a mujaddid a “renewer of Islam “. Bamba’s fame spread through his followers, and people joined him to receive the salvation that he promised. Salvation, he said, comes through submission to the marabout and hard work. There is only one surviving photograph of Amadou Bamba, in which he wears a flowing white kaftan and his face is mostly covered by a scarf.
This picture is venerated and reproduced in paintings on walls, buses, taxis, etc. At the time of the foundation of the Mouride brotherhood inthe Mouridismee were in control of Senegal as well as most of West lw North Africa. Although it had shared in the horrors of the pre-colonial slave tradeFrench West Africa was moutidisme relatively better than other African regions during the Scramble for Africa and ensuing colonial era.
Senegal enjoying small measures of self-rule in many areas. However, French rule still discouraged the development of local industry, preferring to force the exchange of raw materials for European finished goods, and a large number of taxation measures were instituted.
Mouridieme the end of the 19th century, French colonial authorities began to worry about the growing power of mouridismr Mouride brotherhood and its potential to resist French colonialism. Bamba, who had converted various kings and their followers, could probably have raised an army against the French had he wanted.
Fearful moufidisme his power, the French sentenced Bamba to exile in Gabon — and later Mauritania — However, Bamba’s exile fueled legends about his miraculous ability to survive torture, deprivation, and attempted executions, and thousands more flocked to his organization.
For example, on the ship to Gabon, forbidden from praying, Bamba is said to have broken his leg-irons, leapt overboard into the ocean, and prayed on a prayer rug that miraculously appeared on the surface of the water. In addition, when the French put him in a furnace, he is said to have simply sat down and had tea with Muhammad.
In a den of hungry lions, it is said the lions slept mouridime him. Bythe French realized that Bamba was not waging war against them and was in fact quite cooperative.
The Mouride doctrine of hard work served French economic interests, as addressed below. After World War Ithe Mouride brotherhood was allowed to grow and in Bamba began work on the great mosque at Touba where he would be buried one year later. Amadou Bamba was buried in at the great mosque in Touba, the holy city of Mouridism and the heart of the Mouride movement.
After his death Bamba has been succeeded by his descendants as hereditary leaders of the brotherhood with absolute authority over the followers. The caliph leader of the Mouride brotherhood is known as the Grand Marabout and has his seat in Touba. The Grand Marabout is a direct descendant of Amadou Bamba himself and is considered the spiritual leader of all Mourides. There is a descending hierarchy of lower-rank maraboutseach with a regional following. Dahiras are urban associations of Mourides-based either on shared allegiances to a particular marabout or common geographical location, for example, a neighborhood or city-specific dahira.
Daaras are madrassas or quranic schools. They were originally founded by the shayh, his descendants, or disciples to teach the Quran and the Khassida as well as cultivating the land. Hence they have grown to be associations of Mourides, generally based on shared allegiance to a particular marabout.
One famous disciple of Bamba, Ibrahima Fall, was known for his dedication to God and considered work as a form of adoration. Amadou Bamba finally decided that Fall should show his dedication to God purely through manual labor. Baay Faalmany of whom substitute hard labor and dedication to their marabout for the usual Muslim pieties like salah and sawm.
Sheikh Ibrahima Fall was one of the first of Amadou Bamba’s disciples and one of the most illustrious. Fall reshaped the relation between Mouride talibes disciples and their guide, Amadou Bamba. Fall instituted the culture of work among Mourides with his concept of Dieuf Dieul”you reap what you sow”. Mourjdisme members of the Baye Fall dress in colorful ragged clothes, wear their hair in dreadlocks which are called ndiange “strong hair”which they decorate usually with homemade beads, wire or string.
They also carry clubs, and act as security guards in the annual Grand Magal pilgrimages to Touba. Women usually are covered in draping mkuridisme including their heads and occasionally are known to wear highly decorative handmade jewelry made from household or natural items.
In modern times the hard labor is often replaced omuridisme members roaming the streets lw for financial donations for their marabout.
Several Baye Fall are talented musicians. In summary, a Mouride aspires to achieve Islam by following the basic recommendations of Shariat. This includes but is not limited to performing individual obligations Fard Ayn such as prayer, ablution, fasting, pilgrimage and giving charity.
Senegal’s Mourides: Islam’s mystical entrepreneurs – BBC News
Amadou Bamba is considered a mujaddid renewer of Islam by his followers, citing a hadith that implies that God will send renewers of the faith every years. The members of all the Senegalese brotherhoods claim that their founders were such renewers. The Mouride beliefs are based on Quranic and Sufi traditions and influenced by the Qadiri and Tijani brotherhoods, as well as the works by the scholar al-Ghazali.
Amadou Bamba is known to have written more than books in Classical Arabicall of which are based on the Mouridjsme and Hadith. Ahmadou Bamba is known to have said “If it’s not in the Qur’an or Moufidisme, it’s not from me”.
Les logiques de travail chez les Mourides
Parents sometimes omuridisme their sons to live with the marabout as talibes rather than giving them a conventional education. These boys receive Islamic training and are instilled with the doctrine of hard nouridisme. Many Mourides consider the city of Touba as equally or even more important than Mecca. Senegalese politicians have courted the Mouride brotherhood since independence. Even before independence, French colonial administrators recognized that the Mouride lw was well-respected among the Senegalese and partnered with them to promote political and social order.
Traditional Wolof aristocrats had proven problematic as intermediaries for the colonial authorities, and they hoped that Mouride leaders would be more effective and legitimate. This was the first instance of their role in politics. After universal suffrage was given inSenegal saw a rapid increase in the number of voters, almost triple the number just 10 years prior.
This swift increase meant more power for the marabout whose outreach spread largely over the rural and peasant communities, which now had the opportunity to vote. While the political elite finds itself regularly in the position of working through the maraboutstheir ultimate goal is to function without them. Marabouts for their part seek to maintain and ensure that the state remains dependant on them for influential control over citizens. One such mean is the power the religious leaders have as magicians.
Another aspect of influence that the religious leaders have is the material means to influence local leaders and politicians. The shaikh religious leaders can seek to buy the agreement through gifts and help to promote the career or threat to ruin the career of these local politicians and leaders. Marabout very rarely themselves participate directly in the political process. What is more common is to see them exert their influence over their followers and use this in return to gain a larger presence in the Senegalese politics.
Although recently Mourides have become more involved in the highest level of politics. Abdoulaye Wade who is the immediate former president of Senegal is also a devout Mouride.
Groundnuts are the third largest export from Senegal after fish and phosphates. Due to this high proportion of groundnut crop produced by the Mouride, the brotherhood has always seemed to have a large influence in the groundnut market and the economy.
After ten years of dedicated work, laborers then received a share of land large estates were divided up among the laborers. The large mourldisme of the Mouride’s control over the groundnut production has placed them in the center of the nation’s economy. The methods used by the marabout have led to a constant depletion of the forests in Senegal and have taken much of the nutrients out of the soil. Government agencies have made attempts to mouridismf the marabout become more efficient in groundnut production, such as providing incentives for the workers to slow down their production.
Because of their emphasis on work, the Mouride brotherhood is economically well-established in parts of Africa, especially in Senegal and the Gambia. In Senegal, the brotherhood controls significant sections of the nation’s economyfor example the transportation sector and the peanut plantations. Ordinary followers donate part of their income to the Mouridiya. Islam is central to the political sociology of Senegal: There is virtually no opposition to the principle of the secular state, socio-political cleavages based on religion, whether between Muslim and non-Muslim or between Sufi orders, are also virtually non-existent.
The essential Islamic core lies in the shared belief in the fundamental unity of the Muslim world. Islam is a powerful mobilization instrument and provides the rhetoric for the formulation of ideological movements, and serves as a force for mobilizing people in the pursuit of goals defined by those movements. Common religious muoridisme has played a role in defusing the potential for tensions that arise from other social cleavages.
There however remains a potential for ethnic and caste divides to enter the Senegalese socio-political organization. The Senegalese have a mystical aspect to Islam, much like other Sufism brotherhoods.
In Senegal, Islamic practice usually requires membership in religious brotherhoods that are dedicated to the marabouts of these groups.
Marabouts are believed to be the mediators between Allah and mourixisme people. The marabouts of the Mouride Brotherhood devote less time to study and teaching than other brotherhoods.
These acts are believed to bring them a better life and solve their problems as well. Even taxi and bus drivers fill their vehicles with stickers, paintings and photos of the marabouts of their particular brotherhoods.
The marabout-talibe relationship in Senegal is essentially a relationship of personal dependence. It can be a charismatic or a clientelistic relationship. In a charismatic relationship demonstrations of devotion and abnegation towards the marabouts can only explained because their talibes see them as intercessors or even intermediaries with god. This charismatic relationship is reinforced and complemented by a parallel clientelistic relationship between marabout and follower.
The results is that marabouts are expected to provide certain material benefits mouridismw their follower in addition to the spiritual ones. This patronage function has been important in the distribution of land, especially during periods of expanding peanut cultivation. Mouride social organization was developed in the context of the expanding peanut economy and its unique formulation was adapted to the economic imperatives of that context.
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