In , J.C.R. Licklider published his groundbreaking paper called “Man- Computer Symbiosis.” Licklider was both a psychologist and a. J.C.R. Licklider (). Excerpts from “Man-computer Symbiosis”. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pp (now IEEE). J.C.R. Licklider may well be one of the most influential people in the history of In two extraordinary papers, Man-Computer Symbiosis () and The.

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Architects and Builders of the Internet Cathedral. It was his vision that man and machine would work together to accomplish great things. Frankly, licklder have trouble enough teaching other humans to think critically. Ellis, “A command structure for complex information processing,” Proc.

They can be made more compact than core, thin-film, or even tape memory, and they will be much less expensive.

To think in interaction with a computer in the same way that you think with a colleague whose competence supplements your own will require much tighter coupling between man and machine than is suggested by the example and than is possible today.

Part 3 is titled Need for Computer Participation in Formulative and Real-Time Thinking and begins by continuing from a preceding statement on the likelihood of data-processing machines improving human thinking and problem solving. Timesharing systems symbioais currently under active development. Forgie, “Results obtained from a vowel recognition computer program,” J.

The Matrix: J.C.R. Licklider

Other information is of relevance only to one or two operators. The computer should read the man’s writing, perhaps on the condition that it be in clear block capitals, and it should immediately post, at the location of each hand-drawn symbol, the corresponding character as interpreted and put into precise type-face. In theorem-proving programs, computers find precedents in experience, and in the SAGE System, they man-compufer courses of action. In another and more realistic sense, they store symbkosis the possible arguments in the framework structure of the memory.


The part concludes with a statement of the functioning of a potential computer as performing diagnosispattern-matchingand relevance-recognizing. Perhaps the best outcome is partial symbiosis or intelligence augmentation. Part 1 is titled Introduction and has 2 sub-headings, Symbiosis part 1. It is reassuring, however, to note what great strides have already been made, through interpretive programs and particularly through assembly or compiling programs such as FORTRAN, to adapt computers to human language forms.

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Licklider Describes “Man-Computer Symbiosis” :

Commensalism refers to a symbiotic relationship where one of the organisms benefits greatly and the other is not harmed. The first thing to face is that we shall not store all the technical and scientific papers in computer man-vomputer.

A pacemaker consists of a battery, a computer, and wires with sensors connected to a person’s body. People directly linked to smart machines can perhaps function better than people acting without such support.

Man-Computer Symbiosis

It seems reasonable to envision, for a time 10 or 15 years hence, a “thinking center” that will incorporate the functions of present-day libraries together with anticipated advances in information storage and retrieval and the symbiotic functions suggested earlier in this paper.

Who, for example, would depart from Boston for Los Angeles with a detailed specification of the route? Diffusing the Intergalactic Network,” As military system ground environments and control centers grow in capability and complexity, therefore, a real requirement for automatic speech production and recognition in computers seems likely to develop. We may in due course see a serious effort to develop computer programs that can be connected together like the words and phrases of speech to do whatever computation or control is required at the moment.


To what extent would artificial symbiosi be capable of rivaling human intellectual performance in the future? This page was last edited on 21 Novemberat Jacucci gives the description of Lickliders’ vision as being the very tight coupling of human brains and computing machines c. I had to do all of those things while preparing this article.

The Artificial Intelligence Debate.

The general purpose machine that we stare into and fervently punch commands into incessantly through the day gives us the news, entertains us, keeps us in touch with others, and tells us the time of day. The computers have been hand-fed reams of information by data entry personnel, and they use all this data to come up with a possible diagnosis. Another Look at Man-Computer Symbiosis.

1 Introduction

That obstacle has been overcome. He likened it to the symbiotic relationships found in nature, such as the way the insect Blastophaga grossorun pollinates the fig tree. They are “semi-automatic” systems, systems that started out to be fully automatic but fell short of the goal.

David Scott Brown has more than 15 years experience as a freelance network engineer. There is much to ponder about man-computer symbiosis. Detailed discussion of these problems is beyond the present scope.

We may not have been dependent on them before, but it seems that we surely are now. Nowhere, to my knowledge, however, is there anything approaching the flexibility and convenience of the pencil and doodle pad or the chalk and blackboard used by men in technical discussion.